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Full text of "Supplementary notes: Waymarks for teachers"

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Supplementary Notes 
Waymarks for Teachers 




SILVER, BURDETT & COMPANY 
New York Boston Chicago 



First Steps in the History 
of Our Country. 

By WILLIAM A. MOWRY and ARTHUR MAY MOWRY. 



Few books are so fascinating and stirring to boys and girls, either 
in school or under the evening lamp at home, as " First Steps in the 
History of Our Country." 

The book consists of the personal narratives of 39 of the most dis- 
tinguished Americans, from Columbus to Edison. Through the 
stories of these leading personages the history of our country is woven. 
The personal narratives are told with all the spirit and bright interest 
of an accomplished story-teller, and abound in anecdote and conver- 
sation, and are equally readable both to children and adults. 

When a young person finishes this book, he has gained a very fair 
idea of what AMERICA stands for, and he has also gained a proud 
idea of what it is to be an American citizen. 

It is also a most fair book. It gives both sides of disputed ques- 
tions. Thus, it recognizes what Lord Baltimore did for religious 
toleration in Maryland as distinctly as it describes what Roger 
Williams did for religious liberty in Rhode Island. In its portrayal 
of Calhoun, Clay and Lee, it gives to the South as fair a showing as 
the North receives in the stories of Webster, Lincoln and Grant. 

The book is up-to-date in its recognition of the Spanish war, 
which is treated in the interesting narrative of the beautiful work 
done by Clara Barton and the Red Cross Society. 

There is not a dull page in it. Though a history, it reads more 
like a romance. The dullest child who once begins to read this book 
will not want to lay it down until it is finished. 

As a school text-book for elementary grades, or for supplementary 
reading, or as a book for a child's library, it leads all others. 

320 Pages. 21 J Illustration!;. Retail price ^ ^3 cents. 
(For introductory price to Schools, send for Circular.) 



" It starts out with the idea that the main thing that the child needs, 
in order to get his interest aroused in detailed history, is to get first of all 
a succession of powerful impressions of what the course of American life 
for the last four centuries means. So it is the significant epochs which 
are thrown up, and it is a combination of biography and episodes that 
gives the color and connects the facts. Emerson's saying that every 
institution is but the lengthened shado^v of a man was evidently one of 
the inspirations of this delightful little book." — The School Journal. 



Silver, Burdett and Company, Publishers, 

Boston. New York. Chicago. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS 

BY 

SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD 



GIVING AN OUTLINE OF EACH CHAPTER WITH 

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND NAMES OF 

HELPFUL BOOKS OF REFERENCE 



E^C/ BRANSON 

PROFESSOR OF PEDAGOGY, STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, ATHENS, GA. 




SILVER, BURDETT & COMPANY 
New York . . . BOSTON . . . Chicago 



L4y (O oJ / y^ ' 

TV/O COPIES REOEi'v a;.:\ 

LJbraFY of COKgPOSSis 
tliffJee of tfes 

DEC 18 I90U / 



Copyright, 1900, 
By Silver, Burdett and Company. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 
WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 



OUTLINE OF CHAPTER I. 

NATURE STUDY. 

" Teachers can never equip themselves for this work by reading alone." — Jackman. 

I. Purpose and Plan (pp. 9-30). 

1 The value of a clear-sighted recognition of the end of 

education (9-10). 

2 The one great purpose in educating the child (lo-ii). 

"3 How nature study concerns the well-being of the child 
(11-12). 
Jackman 's Nature Study (6-7). 

4 The primary reason for having the child study nature (12). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (25-30). 

Todd and Powell's How to Teach Reading (15-24, 36-44). 

5 Secondary reasons (12-13). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (13-25). 
Manual of Methods for Georgia Teachers (166-7). 

6 Results that should come from nature study (is)' 

7 The immediate ends in view (13). 

8 Three kinds of useful knowledge (14-16). 

9 How does nature study increase the capacity for enjoyment? 

(17). 

10 How is the child to observe ? (13-14). * 

11 How does drawing aid observation? (22, 26). 

12 Matters of importance in nature drawing (26). 

3 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 



13 How does comparison aid observation? (22). 

14 An indication that tlie indoor lessons have been successful 

(20). 

15 How encourage outdoor observation? (22, 28). 

16 Facts to be specially emphasized (20). 

17 Must the child discover everything for himself? (28). 

18 What is it proper for the teacher to tell ? When? (28). 

19 The relation of nature teaching to language learning (16). 

20 What must precede expression ? Why? (21). 

21 Three necessary qualities of expression. How secured? 

(16, 19-20). 

22 How are technical terms to be taught? Mistakes to be 

avoided (17, 25). 

23 How is correct form to be secured? (21, 25-6). 

24 Why precede written work with oral reproduction? (23). 

25 Amount of written work required. Why? (25). 

26 The object and the value of written work (25). 

27 Suggestions about written work in the lower grades (25-6). 

28 How relate nature study to literature? Why? Illustrate 

(23). 

29 Brief outline of the method (17-18). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (50-66). 

30 Outline study of a plant (21). 
Dana's Plants and Their Children. 
Bro-wn's The Plant Baby and Its Friends. 

31 Study and report upon the cotton plant. 

Ricks's Natural History Object Lessons (238-240). 
Newell's Reader in Botany. Part I. (12-24). 

32 How long should one plant be studied, and how many 

plants should be studied in one term? (24). 

33 Things to be considered in planning a series of nature 

lessons. Why? (22-23). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (30-49). 

34 What determines the choice of specimens ? Why? (26). 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 



35 What plant studies may be given in the winter season? 

Why? (28-29). 

36 How can the teacher become prepared for nature teaching ? 

(29). 
Jackman's Nature Study (26-28). 

37 Books helpful for instruction (275). For inspiration (30). 

For guidance : 
Payne's One Hundred Lessons in Nature Study. 
McMurry's Special Method in Science. 
McMurry's Course of Study. 
Howe's Systematic Science Teaching. 
Jackman's Nature Study. 
Wilson's Nature Study in Elementary Schools. 

II. Lessons on Plants (30-80). 

1 Terms needed in descriptions (30-32). 
Newell's Outlines of Botany. Part I. 
Pillsbury's Synopsis of Botanical Terms. 
Brown's The Plant Baby and Its Friends (13-27). 

2 Study the common house geranium (32-3). 
Morley's A Few Familiar Flowers (181-205). 
Newell's Outlines of Botany. Part II. (21-6). 

3 Study the sweet pea (33-4). 
Bailey's Lessons on Plants. 

Newell's Outlines of Botany. Part II. (238-241). 

4 Study the apple (34-5). 
Bailey's Lessons on Plants. 

Payne's One Hundred Lessons in Nature Study (14-15). 

5 Study the thistle (36). 

Wilson's Nature Study in Elementary Schools (24-26). 

6 Study the corn plant (37-8). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (239-244). 
Story of Mondamin (Hiawatha's Fasting). 

7 Study the dandelion (38-9) . 

Newell's Outlines of Botany. Part II. (212-16). 
Newell's Botany Reader. Part II. (i 12-124). 

8 The aster. Description. Quotations (39-40). 
Wilson's Nature Study in Elementary Schools (27-32). 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 



October lessons (40-54). 
Morley's Song of Life {9-43). 
(i) Purposes (40-41). 

(2) First week — Autumn flowers (41-44). 

Monday — The golden rod (41-2). 

Needham's Outdoor Studies (29-46). 

Tuesday — Asters (42-3). 

Andrew's Stories Mother Nature told her Children (155-161). 

Wednesday — The sunflower (43) . 

McMurry's Special Method in Science (244-246). 

Thursday — The gentian (43). 
Friday — The clover (43-4) . 

(3) Second week — Autumn leaves (44-7). 
McMurry's Special Method in Science (94-97). 

Monday — Leaves. Named, compared, classed, described 

(44-6). 
Howe's Systematic Science Teaching (117-124). 

Tuesday — Maple and elm leaves. Described, compared, 

drawn (46). 
Wednesday — Oak and birch leaves (46). 
Thursday — Horse-chestnut and poplar leaves (47). 
Friday — Corn or grass and pumpkin leaves (47). 
Review: Descriptions, colors, drawings (47). 

(4) Third week — Autumn fruits (48-50). 
Suggestive questions and subjects. 

Dana's Plants and their Children (9-69). 

Ricks's Natural History Object Lessons (44-50). 

Morley's Seed Babies. 

Andrew's Stories Mother Nature told her Children (117-123). 

(5) Fourth week — Harvest lessons and poems (50-54). 
Harvest hymns studied, memorized, and sung. 
Decorations of flowers, leaves, and fruits (54). 
Suggested: Parts of Whittier's The Husking (Mabel Martin) (51-2). 

Parts of Whittier's Corn Song (52). 
Jackson's October's Bright Blue Weather (53). 
McMurry and Cook's Song of the Tree-top and Meadow. 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 



10 Fall lessons (54-5). 

Suggestive questions and subjects (54-5). 
McMurry's Course of Study. 

11 Spring lessons(55-6o). 
McMurry's Course of Study, 
(i) Signs of spring (55-6). 

(2) Earliest spring flowers (56). 

(3) Lesson on the pasque (57-8). 
Pupils' report (58). 

(4) Poem (50-1). 

12 Descriptions of plants by primary pupils (60-78). 
[Indicative of results possible under good teaching.] 
Read, note, and list the valuable educational results 

accomplished. 

13 Plant lessons by Grades (78-9). 
McMurry's Course of Study. 

Outlines of Nature Study, History, and Literature (Oswego Normal 
School). 

III. Lessons on Animals (80-106). 

1 Insect studies. 

Needham's Elementary Lessons in Zoology (34-84). 

Hyatt and Arms's Insecta. 

Ricks's Natural History Object Lessons (271-283). 

(i) Characteristic marks. 

(2) Comparison of different specimens. 
Ricks's Natural History Object Lessons (282). 

(3) Collection of specimens. Killing. Mounting. 
Needham's Elementary Lessons in Zoology (34-36). 

2 Outline for lesson plan (81). 

3 Study of the grasshopper. Secure specimen and follow 

outline. 
Colton's Practical Zoology (1-9). 
Lange's Handbook of Nature Study (213-216). 

4 Study of the Butterfly (as before) (83-4). 
Scudder's Frail Children of the Air. 
Colton's Practical Lessons in Zoology (11-15). 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 



5 Study of the beetle (84-5). 

Howe's Systematic Science Lessons (104). 
Colton's Practical Zoology (17-19). 
Wright's Nature Reader, No. 2 (69-106). 

6 Study of the bee (85-86). 
Colton's Practical Zoology (lo-ii). 

Bergen's Glimpses of the Plant World (93-106). 
Howe (133-134)- 

7 Study of the spider (86). 
Colton (21-2). 

Ricks (248-252). 

Howe (129-130). 

Johonnot's Flyers, Creepers, and Swimmers (123-136). 

Treat's Home Studies in Nature (79-119). 

8 Lessons on the snail (87). 
Colton (56-8). 

Howe (72-4). 
Ricks (308-316). 

9 Lessons on the cat (88-9). 
Howe (92-94). 

McMurry's Special Method in Science (248-250). 

10 Lessons on the hen (89-90). 
Howe (65-8). 

11 Lessons on the duck (91-2). 
Rooper's Object Teaching (36-50). 
Howe (99-100). 

12 Lessons on the canary or robin (92). 
Howe (95-6). 

Stickney-Hoffman's Bird World (7-1 1). 
Lange's Handbook of Nature Study (11-12). 

13 Lessons on fishes (92). 
Colton (70-86). 

Ricks (265-271). 

Morley's Song of Life (43-63). 

14 Specimen lessons (93-104). 

[Indicative of possible results under good teaching.] 
Read, note, and list the valuable educational results 
accomplished. 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 



15 Outlines of animal lessons by Grades (104-105). 
McMurry's Course of Study. 

Outlines of Nature Study, History, and Literature (Oswego Normal 
School). 

IV. Lessons on tlie Human Body (106-118). 

Howe's Systematic Science Teaching (59-62, 207-245). 

1 Temperance lessons (i 06-1 10). 
(i) Mistaken notions (106-107). 

(2) What is meant by a temperance lesson? (108). 

(3) Illustrations (108-109). 

(4) Two ways of teaching the effects of alcohol (109). 

(5) Don'ts (109-110). 

(6) Seizing chance occasions (no). 

2 Body lessons for first year pupils (111-115). 

3 Outline of health lessons (115-118). 



CHAPTER II. 

LANGUAGE LESSONS. 

" Ability to express one's thoughts clearly, forcibly, and with a degree of elegance — 
that is, ability to write good English — is perhaps the highest test of mental cultivation. 
It is the slow maturing fruit of real culture." — Hinsdale. 

"Language lies at the root of all mental cultivation." — Mommsen. 

I. Purpose and Plan (119-122). 

1 The twofold aim in language work (119-120, 143). 

Hinsdale's Teaching the Language-Arts (32, 81, 113). 

Bartlett's First Steps in English (To Teachers). 

Hazen's Language Series, Books I. and II. (Introduction). 

2 A danger to be avoided (120). 

3 The force of interest (120-122). 

Report of the Conference on English to the Committee of Ten (87). 
Hinsdale's Teaching the Language-Arts (186). 
Parker's Pedagogics (202). 

4 The force of example (120-121, 124). 
Hinsdale's Teaching the Language-Arts (77, 116). 

5 The force of imitation and habit (120-121, 122). 
Hinsdale (35-42, 56, 150, 151). 

" Habit is our primal, fundamental law ; Habit and Imitation, there is nothing more 
perennial in us than these two. They are the source of all Working and all Appren- 
ticeship, of all Practice and all Learning, in this world." — Carlyle. 

6 The force of practice (121). 
Hinsdale (114, 115). 

" Never, until the idea that Composition is a ' study ' to be learned from a book, is 
banished from our schools, will children be taught to write properly." — Hinsdale. 

7 The values of correction (121-122, 138-140, 142-3). 
Hinsdale (151,185-194). 

Spalding's Problem of Elementary Composition, Chap. X. 

8 The force of rules (121, 138). 
Hinsdale (52, 113, 150-151, 165). 

9 Stumbling blocks in Grammatical Expression (122). 
Richard Grant White's Words and their Uses (297, 316). 
Formal drills necessary (121-2). 

10 Desirable qualities of expression (16, 122, 123). 
How gained (16, 122, 123). 

10 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. II 



Hinsdale (53, 125, 163, 198). 

Bartlett's The Essentials of Language and Grammar (Introduction). 

II. Written Work. 

1 Preceded by oral work. Why? Mistakes (123). 
Hinsdale (45). 

Parker's Pedagogics (208-9). 

2 Purpose to be kept steadily in view. Danger (123-4). 

3 How arbitrary written forms are learned (124). 
Hinsdale (Preface; also p. 53). 

4 English forms of chief importance (124). 

(i) Punctuation (125-7). Order of difficulty. 
Hinsdale (91). 

(2) Capitalization (125-7). Order of difficulty. 

(3) Paragraphing (128-9). How taught (134). 

(4) Letter Forms (129-130). How taught (134). 
Spalding's The Problem of Elementary Composition (Chap. II.). 
Bartlett's The Essentials of Language and Grammar (52-65, 293- 

307)- 

5 Use of Dictation exercises (130). 
Hinsdale (56). 

III. Picture Lessons (132-137). 

The Riverside Manual for Teachers (2-18). 
Quincy Methods (Chapter V.). 

Arnold's Reading: How to Teach It (Chapter IX). 
Bartlett's First Steps in English (34, 67, loi, 163). 

1 Aims (132). 

2 Forms of the picture lesson. Cautions (132-4). 

3 Materials — character; sources; mounting (135-6). 

4 Complete answers. Observations (136). 

5 When and why use pictures (137)- 

6 Skilful questioning (137). 

7 Repeating answers. Cautions (137). 

8 Preparation by the teacher (137). 

IV. Lessons on Word-Forms. 
1 Principles (138-9). 



12 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. 

2 Exercise in Correction (139-140). 

3 Exercise upon the Nominative Pronoun (140). 

4 Exercise upon the Past Tense and the Perfect Participle 

(141-2). 
Bartlett's The Essentials of Language and Grammar (109-114, 
240-246). 

V, Poems and Stories (143-15 1). 

McMurry's Special Method in Literature and History. 

1 Two main sources of material for language lessons (143). 
Hinsdale (45-50). 

Parker's Talks on Teaching (Chapters XII., XIII., XIV.). 

2 The relations of observation to reading (143). 
Hinsdale (80-81). 

3 The values of literature in language teaching (143-4). 
Hinsdale (45-7). 

4 Forms of literature suitable (144, 147, 150-151). 

5 Effects of Hterature upon childhood (144-147, 151). 
Arnold's Reading: How to Teach It (Chapter II.). 

6 The value of skill in story-telling (148-9). 
Hinsdale (50-51). 

Spalding's Problem of Elementary Composition (Chap. TIL). 

7 Sources of material (148). 

Pratt's Classic Stories for Language Lessons. 

Stories for Compositions. 

Grant's Primary Reproduction Stories. 

Chancellor's Primary Memory Gems. 

Fables, Anecdotes and Stories for Teaching Composition. 

Anderson's Sixty Composition- Topics. 

8 How used (149-150). 
Quincy Methods (Chapter VI.). 

9 Professional Aids. 

Hinsdale's Teaching the Language-Arts. 
Huffcutt's English in the Preparatory School. 
Woodward's English in the Schools. 
Spalding's The Problem of Elementary Composition. 
Newcomer's Practical English Composition. 
Mead's The English Language and Its Grammar. 
Welsh's English Composition and Rhetoric. 



CHAPTER III. 

READING. 

" The greatest and the hardest of all the arts." — G. Stanley Hall. 

" The public schools of the United States now cost the people $170,000,000 a year; 
but the schools earn the money, provided they do measurably well these three things only: 
Teach the children of the land how to read, teach them what to read, and give them a 
love for what is good in English literature." — Hinsdale. 

I. Aims (152-160). 

1 What reading is (152-3). 
Compayre's Lectures on Pedagogy (291). 
Parker's Pedagogics (126, 188, 190). 

Hinsdale's Teaching the Language- Arts (67-8, 68-9). 

Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk II.). 

Branson's Methods in Reading (5). 

Arnold's Reading : How to Teach It (Chapter I.). 

2 Preliminary word-studies (153-7). 
Hinsdale (86-7). 

(i) What is meant (153-4). 
Hinsdale (89), 

(2) Why necessary (154). 

(3) Teaching the meaning of new words (155). 
How.!' Aids (155). 

,(4) Teaching the word-forms : How? (156-7). 

Arnold's Reading: How to Teach It (Chapter III.). 

Primary Reading, Boston Method (5-6, 12, 17-23). 

Parker's Pedagogics (199, 203, 324). 

Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talks III. & VIIL), 

Branson's Methods in Reading (20-22). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (25-29). 

(5) Phonic exercises (157). 
What is meant ? Necessity ? How ? 
Primary Reading, Boston Method (9-12, 15-17, 23-27). 
Branson's Methods in Reading (17-20). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (29-32). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talks VT. & VIIL). 
Todd and Powell's How to Teach Reading (45, 46). 
13 



14 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 

3 Reading proper — meaning (15 7-8) . 
Hinsdale (Chapter XIII.). 
Parker's Pedagogics (Chapter IX.). 

(i) Purposes (160-161). 

Hinsdale (70, "jt^). 

Hall's How to Teach Reading (24). 

(2) Upon what the power to read depends (158-160). 
Hinsdale (Chapter XL). 

Branson's Methods in Reading (5-7). 

(3) When reading is really educative (159-60). 
Parker's Pedagogics (188-9). 

Branson's Methods in Reading (6). 

II. Preparatory Lessons (160-161). 

Todd and Powell's How to Teach Reading (25-46). 
Arnold's Reading : How to Teach It (Chapter V.). 
Riverside Manual for Teachers (2-24). 
McMurry's Special Method in Reading (80-84). 
Hinsdale (79-80, 85). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talks XII., XIIL). 

1 Purposes (160-161). 
Hinsdale (22-4). 

2 Why necessary (161). 
Hinsdale (Chapter V., 44-5, 85). 

3 Method (161). 

Hinsdale (45-9). 

Evans's Sentence Method of Reading (6-9). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (25). 

III. How to get Expression (162-4). 

1 Ideals of Expression. 

Arnold's Reading: How to Teach It (Chapter VI.). 

2 Conditions (162). 
Parker's Pedagogics (333, 335). 

3 Methods. 

Parker's Talks to Teachers (Chapter IV.). 
Branson's Methods in Reading (11-12). 
McMurry's Special Method in Reading (89-92). 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 15 

IV. Suggestive Hints (164-8). 

Shaw and Donnell's School Devices (74-84). 

Swett's Methods of Teaching (123-132). 

McMurry's Special Method in Reading (Chapter VI.). 

1 Have silent reading for the complete thought before utter- 

ance begins (164). 
Hinsdale (73). 

2 Question to induce clear, definite thought (164-5). 

3 Have the lesson reproduced in the child's own words (165). 

4 Have the children picture the lesson with their pencils. 

Why? (165). 

5 Read to the children. What? Why? (166). 

6 Use supplementary reading freely. Why? (167). 
Arnold's Reading : How to Teach It (Chapters X., XII., XIII.). 
Hall's How to Teach Reading (29-31). 

Branson's Methods in Reading (25-29). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (195-9). 

McMurry's Special Method in Reading (Chapter VII.). 

7 Have at hand abundant easy reading. Why? (167). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk IX.). 

8 Objections to the newspaper as supplementary reading 

(166). 

9 Objections to concert reading. Its uses (167). 

10 Have occasional sight-reading (168). 

What the term means. Objects. Proper material. Why ? 

11 Seat-work directions in reading (226-8). 
Branson's Methods in Reading (7-10). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (36-7). 

12 Mistakes in teaching reading. 
Branson's Methods in Reading (23-4). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (41-2). 
Compayre's Lectures on Teaching (304). 

Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching, Branson's Edition (80-81). 

13 The alphabetic method. 

Brooks's Normal Methods of Teaching (132-3). 
Hall's How to Teach Reading (i). 
Compayre's Lectures on Teaching (294). 



1 6 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. 

V. A Teacher's Lesson Plan (168-170). 

I Subject. 2 Purpose. 3 Means. 4 Preparation. 5 Study 

of the poem. 
Quincy Methods (Sec. III.). 

VI. Primary Lessons in Beading (170-176). 
(Suggestive of what may be taught with blackboards and 

chalk in any school). 
Todd and Powell's How to Teach Reading (47-54). 

VIL Professional Aids. 

Hinsdale's Teaching the Language Arts. 
McMurry's Special Method in Reading. 
Hall's How to Teach Reading. 
Branson's Method in Reading and Spelling. 
Parker's Talks on Teaching. 
Arnold's Reading : How to Teach It. 
Todd and Powell's How to Teach Reading. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SPELLING. 

" Spelling is for the eye and hand rather than for the ear, and consists in describing 
the details of the word-picture, and in teaching the eye and hand the complete process' of 
read-writing. It is one of the best and most labor-saving devices, which it is folly to dis- 
pense with, however late in the process we may place it." — Dr. G. Stanley Hall. 

I. What is Spelling ? (177). 

Brooks's Normal Methods of Teaching (146). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (67). 

1 Its nature (177). 
Brooks (146-152). 

2 Mental powers involved (177). 

3 Oral and written spelling (179). 
(i) Relative value. 

Fitch's Lectures on Teaching {199). 
De Graff's Schoolroom Guide (65-67). 

(2) Relative difficulty. 

(3) The peculiar values of each (179). 
Raub's Methods of Teaching (133-4, 138-9). 
Brooks (152-155). 

Parker's Talks (68). 

II. Aims (178). 

Branson's Methods in Reading and Spelling (30-31). 

Parker (68). 

Dunton's Normal Course in Spelling (Suggestions to Teachers). 

III. Methods. 

Swett's Methods of Teaching (132-140). 
Brooks (155-163). 
De Graff (69-78). 

1 Primary methods (178, 181, 185). 
Branson (31-32). 

Quincy Methods (280-290). 

2 Methods for advanced classes (181-5). 
Branson (33-34)- 

Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk X.). 
17 



1 8 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. 

(i) Dictation exercises (181-4). 
Fitch's Lectures on Teaching (199-201). 

a. How given (181-4). 

b. Cautions (182-4). 

c. How corrected (183). 

d. Aims in corrections (183). 

(2) Oral spelling : Hints (184). 

(3) The spelling match (185). 
a. How best conducted. 

(4) Diacritical exercises (185-186). 

a. What is meant. 

b. When. 

c. Why. 

d. Learn Webster's diacritical works thoroughly (186). 

(5) Spelling diversions (185). 
Raub (151-153). 

Branson (33). 

IV. Suggestions. 

Raub (134-7, 139-150)- 

Brooks (163-167). 

Branson (34-36). 

Shaw & Donnell's School Devices (Chapter III.). 

Quincy Methods (609-622). 

V. Classes of Words Needing Special Attention (180-1, 

185-6). 



CHAPTER V. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

" Wherever our home is, there lie all the materials we need for a study of the entire 

globe." — RiTTER. 

" Every little nook and shaded comer is but a reflection of the whole of nature." — 
Humboldt. 

I. What Geography is (187). 

McCormick's Suggestions on Teaching Geography (Chapter I.). 
Boyer's Principles and Methods of Teaching (282-3). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk XVIII.). 
Parker's Pedagogics (27-30). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (83). 

1 Chief aim (187). 
Boyer (309). 

Report of the Committee of Fifteen. 

Georgia Manual of Methods (85). 

Parker's How to Teach Geography (Introduction). 

2 What the subject includes (187). 
McCormick (Chapter II.). 
Parker's Pedagogics (Chapter II.). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (83-4). 

II. Elementary Geography Lessons (187-203). 

Crocker's Methods in Geography (13-21). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (88-95). 
Payne's Geographical Nature Studies. 
Long's Lessons in Home Geography. 
Frye's Brooks and Brook Basins. 

1 Scope and character (187). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (88), 
McCormick (p. 34). 

Redway's Teacher's Manual of Geography (Chapter II.). 
Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (16-17, Chapter V.). 
Boyer's Principles and Methods of Teaching (292-295). 

2 Purposes in view (187-8, 189). 
Carver's How to Teach Geography (9). 
Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk XXL). 



20 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 

3 When begun (187). How prefaced (188). 
Parker's How to Study Geography (76-79). 
Crocker's Methods of Teaching Geography (9-12). 
Carver's How to Teach Geography (5-16). 
Roark's Method in Education (176-179). 
Illustrative prefatory lessons (194-8). 
Quincy Methods (73-102, 361-370). 

Boyer (297-8, 299-302). 

4 How long continued (189). How followed (189). 

5 How the lessons are to be given (189). 
Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (12-15). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (8S-89). ' 

6 Powers of mind engaged in Geography study (188-9). 
McCormick (Chapter IV.). 

Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (4). 

Boyer's Principles and Methods of Teaching (291-292). 

Parker's Talks on Teaching (Talk XIX.). 

III. Forms of the Work (189-203). 

McMurry's Special Method in Geography. 

1 Excursions (189). 

Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (Chapter VII.-IX.). 

a. What is to be observed. 

b. Purposes in view. 

c. How accomplished. 

d. Illustrative field lessons (200-203). 
Putnam's Manual of Pedagogics (147-149). 

2 Study of occupations (190). 
McCormick (Chapter IX.). 

Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (Chapters X.-XI.). 

a. Aims. 

b. Suggested subjects. 

c. Illustrative lesson (198-200). 

3 Home lessons on government (190-191). 

Quincy Methods (355-360). 
Martin's Hints on Teaching Civics. 
Mowry's Elements of Civil Government. 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 21 

4 Map drawing (19 1-2). 

King's Methods and Aids in Geography (Chapter VII.). 
McCormick (Chapter X.). 
Frye's Child and Nature (70-80). 

a. Preparation. 
Beyer (298-9). 

b. Object. Caution. 

c. Method detailed. 

d. Map reading. 

King's Methods and Aids in Geography (93-8). 
Geikie's The Teaching of Geography (10-22). 

5 Globe lessons (192-3). 

a. When. b. What. c. Why. 

McCormick (93-95). 

Frye's Child and Nature (Chapter IX.). 

6 Summary and review (193). 
a. How. b. Why. 

IV. Hints and Suggestions. 

King's Methods and Aids in Geography (Chapter IX.). 

McCormick (Chapters XII.-XVI.). 

Redway (Chapters III., IV.). 

Shaw and Donnell's Schoolroom Devices (47-61). 

Swett's Methods of Teaching (157-163). 

Raub's Methods of Teaching (369-377). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (98-105). 

V. Outline Study of Georgia. 

1 Location. 

(i) Boundaries. 
(2) Mathematical position. 
a. Comparisons. 

2 Extent. 
Comparisons. 

3 Surface. 

(i) Drainage basins. 
(2) Mountain ranges. 
Commonwealth of Georgia (Ag'l Dept.) (Chapter III.). 



22 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 



Climate. 

(i) Conditions and character. 

(2) Rainfall. 

(3) Chief rivers. 

a. Navigation. 

b. Water power. 

Bulletin No. 3 — Geological Survey of Ga. — Yeates. 
Commonwealth of Georgia (Chapters IV., VIII.). 

Soil. 

(i) Variety and adaptability. 

Commonwealth of Georgia (Chapter VI.). 

Productions, 
(i) Chief crops. 

(2) Woods. 

(3) Mineral resources. 

Bulletins, No. i, 2, 4, 5 — Geological Survey of Ga. — Yeates. 
Commonwealth of Georgia (Chapter VII. & Part III.). 
Spencer's Geological Survey of Ga., Parts II., III. 

Industries and commerce, 
(i) Chief occupations. 

(2) Manufactures. 

(3) Exports. Imports. 

Commonwealth of Georgia (Part II., Chapter II.). 

Roads. 

(i) Highways. 

a. Comparative condition. 

(2) Railways — Trunk lines. 
Commonwealth of Georgia (Part II., Chapter IV.). 
Spencer's Geological Survey of Ga., Chap. XLI. 

(3) Termini. 
Chief cities. 

(i) Items of interest. 
a. Industrial. 



b. Educational. 

c. Historical, 



iL.af(£. 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 23 

10 Education. 

(i) Seats of learning. 

(2) Public school system. 
a. Comparisons. 

Commonwealth of Georgia (pp. 257-282). 

(3) Illiteracy. 

a. Comparisons. 
Report U. S. Bureau of Education (1892-3) (Chapter II.). 

11 Advantages and disadvantages of life in the home state. 
Commonwealth of Georgia. 



CHAPTER VI. 

NUMBER. 

" Apprehension by the senses supplies, directly or indirectly, the material of all human 
knowledge ; or at least, the stimulus necessary to develop every inborn faculty of the 
mind." — Helmholtz. 

"The higher processes of mind in mathematics lie at the very foundation of the 
subject." — Sylvester. 

" Equations constitute the true starting-point in arithmetic." — Comtb. 

1 Aims in teaching arithmetic (204-5). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (10). 

2 Valuable habits to be formed. Why valuable (205-6). 
Roark's Method in Education (262), 

3 Development lessons : What. Why. How (206-8). 
Shutts's Handbook of Arithmetic. 

4 Number drills : When. What. Why. Cautions (207-9). 
Pierce's First Steps in Arithmetic (Preface). 

Dunton's Methods of Teaching Arithmetic in Primary Schools 
(7-38)- 

5 The uses of memory in number teaching (209). 
Compayre's Lectures on Pedagogy (387). 

Parker's Pedagogics (94-96). 

6 Facts underlying addition and subtraction. How taught 

(209-210). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (13, 16-20). 

7 Facts underlying multiplication and division. How taught 

(210-12). 
The Most Difficult Facts (210-212). 
Roark's Method in Education (269-270). 
Brooks's Normal Methods (359-367). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (20-24). 

8 When and how the arithmetical processes are to be taught 

(212). 
Parker's Pedagogics (97-99). 

9 How the tables of denominate tables are to be taught (212). 
Shaw & Donnell's Schoolroom Devices (i 17-123). 

Brooks's Normal Methods (374-377). 
24 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 2$ 

10 When objects are to be put aside in number teaching. 

Why (212-213). 
Compayre's Lectures on Pedagogy. 

11 Powers in the teacher necessary to good number teaching 

(213-214). 

12 The uses of analysis. Stages. Cautions (214-217). 

13 Test of success in teaching arithmetic (216-217). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (lo-ii). 

14 Hints in primary number teaching. 
Georgia Manual of Methods (129-147). 
Brooks's Normal Methods (345-353). 

Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapters II.-IV.). 
Dunton's Methods o£ Teaching Arithmetic in Primary Schools. 

15 Hints in teaching fractions. 

Cook's Methods in Written Arithmetic (Chapters IX.-XI.). 

Georgia Manual of Methods (147-153). 

Brooks's Normal Methods (367-374). 

Sloane's Practical Lessons in Fractions. 

Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapter V.). 

Report of the Committee of Fifteen. 

16 Hints in teaching decimals. 

Cook's Methods in Written Arithmetic (Chapter XII.). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (153-156). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapter VI.). 

17 Hints in teaching percentage. 

Cook's Methods in Written Arithmetic (Chapters XV.-XXII.). 
Georgia Manual of Methods (160-162). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapter VII.). 

18 Hints in teaching ratio and proportion. 
Georgia Manual of Methods (163-164). 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapter VIIL). 

19 Hints in teaching square root. 

Cook's Methods in Written Arithmetic (Chapter XXIV.j 
Branson's Methods in Arithmetic (Chapter IX.). 

20 Value of mental arithmetic. 

Compayre's Lectures on Pedagogy (385-6). 
Raub's Methods of Teaching (272-4). 



26 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES- 



Boyer's Principles and Methods in Education (277-8). 
Brooks's Normal Methods (Chapter IV., Part III.). 

21 General suggestions. 

Swett's Methods of Teaching (141-149). 

Raub's Methods of Teaching (303-309). 

Brooks's Normal Methods (Chapter V., Part III.). 

Dewey & McClellan's Psychology of Number (59-67). 

Dunton's Methods of Teaching Arithmetic in Primary Schools. 

Morgan's Studies in Pedagogy (215-237). 



CHAPTER VII. 

SEAT WORK. 

" The hand is the most important organ in the development of the child's brain." 

I. Purpose and Direction (218-226). 

1 Importance of proper seat work directions (218-219). 
Shaw & Donnell's School Devices (215). 

2 Purposes to be accomplished in seat work (218). 
George's Suggestions for Seat Work (3). 

3 Reasons for indicating seat work as well as recitations in the 

daily programme (219). 
George's Suggestions for Seat Work (3-4). 

4 The nature of good seat work (220-226). 

(i) It is related to the lessons of the day. Why? (220). 

(2) The teacher's directions are definite. Why? (221-226). 

(3) The work is sufficient to occupy the time fully. How ? 
(221). 

(4) It is orderly. How? (221-222). 

(5) It is varied in character, but constant in purpose. How ? 
Why? (222). 

(6) It is reasonable in character and quantity. Illustrate 

(225)- 

(7) It trains the child in independent self-educative effort. 

5 Supervision and correction (223-225). 
(i) Why necessary? (223). 

(2) How done? (224). 

(3) Aims in view (224-5). 

II. Suggestions for Seat Work (226-230). 

Shaw & Donnell's School Devices (215-223). 
George's Suggestions for Seat Work. 
Johnson's Education by Doing. 
Hall's Busy-Work Devices. 

27 



28 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. 

Kellogg's How to Manage Busy-Work. 
Bamberger's Education of Head and Hand. 

1 Reading (226-229). 

Branson's Methods in Reading and Spelling (6-10). 
George's Suggestions for Seat Work. 

2 Number (229-232). 
Johnson's Education by Doing. 

3 Form and color (232-235). 

Crocker's Lessons on Color in Primary Schools. 

Holland's Lessons in Clay Modelling. 

Cutler's Methods in Form Study. 

Hildreth's Clay Modelling. 

Hintz's Illustrative Blackboard Sketching. 

Augsburg's Easy Things to Draw. 

Hull's Drawing Book. 

Shaylor's Normal Course in Drawing : Handbook for Teachers. 

McLeod's Paper Folding and Cutting. 

Weaver's Paper and Scissors in the Schoolroom. 

Wiebe's Paradise of Childhood. 

4 Other forms of manual training. 

Wakeman and Heller's Scientific Sewing and Garment Cutting. 
Kilbon's Knife Work in the Schoolroom. 
Hinkley's Wood Work in Common Schools. 
Woodhull's Simple Experiments. 

5 Seat work for older classes (235-6). 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TALKS ON SCHOOL SUBJECTS. 

"The school is a miniature world and tends to call into exercise, on a narrow field, 
all the motives that influence men on the larger field of life's activities." — Thos. J. 
Morgan. 

I. Moods and Manners (236-240). 

1 Undesirable qualities. Effects upon pupils (237-9). 

2 Desirable qualities. Effects upon pupils (237-9). 
How acquired (239-40). 

II. For Monday Mornings (240-44). 

1 Importance of beginning the week with high ideals of char- 

acter (241-2). 

2 An illustrative lesson. How given. Values (242-4). 

III. The Schoolroom Atmosphere (244-7). 

1 The schoolroom of Hurry and Worry and the schooh-oom 

of Peace and Steady Purpose. Contrast (244-6). 

2 Source of the evil. The remedy (247). 
Putnam's Manual of Pedagogics (Chapters XI. and XII.). 

IV. The Programme (247-254). 

Baldwin's Art of School Management (Part IV., Chapter V.). 

White's School Management (86-94). 

Branson's Edition, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (274). 

1 Why have a programme? (247-8). 

2 Why indicate seat work as well as recitation periods ? (219, 

248). 

3 Why follow it faithfully? (248-9). 

4 How perfect your programme? (249). 

5 Things to be considered in constructing a programme (249). 

6 The two general aims in seat work (218, 251, 258). 

7 When and how correct seat work (223-5, 251). 

29 



30 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 



8 The value of prearranged lesson plans (252). 
Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (142-4). 

9 Specimen programmes (253-4). 

V. The Lesson (255-262). 

1 The purposes of. The forms of (255). 

Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (152-4). 

McMurry's General Method. 

McMurry's Method of the Recitation. 

Rowland's Practical Hints to Teachers (Chapter VIII.). 

Baldwin's Art of School Management (Part VI.). 

2 Development lessons (255-8, 206-209). 
(i) Purpose (255, 206). 

a. Eaiowledge-getting. 

(2) Character (206, 255-8). 

a. Objective. Illustrative. 

b. Primary appeal to thoughtful observation. 

(3) Order of details (255-8). 

a. Preparation. Reviving recollection of similar old 
experiences (207). 

b. Presentation. Presenting the new idea — objectively, 
illustratively (208, 255-257). 

c. Interpretation. Relating the new to the old, by defi- 
nite, orderly questioning (208, 256-7). 

d. Appropriation. EHciting from the pupil full expres- 
sion of what has been newly learned (208, 257). 

e. Generalization. Testing to see if he have the full 
idea properly related (257). 

f. Application. Practise developing power and skill in 
using the newly acquired knowledge (208, 257). 

(4) Necessary on part of the teacher (255). 

a. Accurate, orderly, and complete knowledge of the 
subject (256). 

b. Knowledge of the needs of the pupil (261). 

c. Power of simpHfication and illustration (256). 

d. Skill in apt questioning (257). 

e. Just ideals of teaching. 



WAYMARKS FOR TEACHERS. 31 

3 Drill lessons (258-260). 

[Outline to be filled out by the student from the' references.] 

(i) Purposes (207, 209, 258, 260). 

Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (153). 

(2) Character (206, 207, 257-258). 

(3) Order of details (258-9). 

(4) Necessary on part of the teacher (258, 260). 

4 Test lessons (261-2). 

Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (152). 
[To be outlined by the student as before.] 

VI. Discipline of the Schoolroom (262-274). 

Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (242-6), 
Baldwin's Art of School Management (124-138). 

1 The immediate and important ends in view (262-3). 
Compayre's Lectures on Pedagogy (475). 

White's School Management (105-113). 

Third Year Book of the National Herbart Society — Article by Dr 
W. T. Harris. 

2 The relation of discipline to character (263). 
Morgan's Studies in Pedagogy (338-341). 
Rowland's Practical Hints for Teachers (Chapter VII.). 

3 Why discipline should be reasonable — not arbitrary (263). 

4 Effect upon the pupil of a spirit of reasonableness in the 

teacher (264). 
Morgan's Studies in Pedagogy (331-334). 

5 The worthiest motive in the teacher. Its effect upon the 

school (265). 
Branson's Ed'n, Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (Chapter I.). 

6 The worthiest motive in the pupil. Why? (264). 

7 Hints upon school discipline. 

Baldwin's Art of School Management (138-144, 182-192). 

(i) Condition pupils for wise choice in conduct. How? 

(265). 

(2) Habits of right conduct are the result of repetition (266). 

(3) Habits worth cultivating (267). 

Branson's Ed'n, of Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (75-6). 



32 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES; 

(4) Playground discipline as important as schoolroom dis- 
cipline. Condition it wisely (267). 

(5) Establish the necessary mechanical routine. What? 
How? Why? (268). 

Baldwin's Art of School Management (90-100). 

(6) Assign lessons reasonably ; require them rigidly. Why ? 
(269). 

(7) Prepare each day's lessons beforehand. Why? (269). 

(8) Be in sympathy with child nature. Why? (269-70). 

(9) It is well to overlook slight offences. Why? (270). 

(10) The best discipline is unobtrusive. Why? (270.) 

(11) Avoid public reproof (and pubUc praise, as well). 
Why? (270). 

(12) Expect good conduct. Why? (270). 

(13) Few rules; arising out of just occasions; wisely and 
faithfully enforced. Why? (270). 

(14) As far as possible enforce the discipline of natural 
consequences. Illustrations. Reasons (270-271). 

Spencer's Education (Chapter III.). 

Bain's Education as a Science (118). 

Fitch's Lectures on Teaching (115). 

White's School Management (203-210). 

Compayre's Psychology Applied to Education (190-192). 

(15) The certainty of punishment is more effective than its 
severity. Why? (271). 

(16) Be courteously considerate of parents. Why? (271-2). 
Rowland's Practical Hints to Teachers (158-9). 

(17) Ascertain the home life of the pupil. Why? (271-2). 

(18) Use recesses, as far as possible, to establish cordial 
and helpful intimacies with the children. How? Why? 

(273-4)- 

(19) Develop in pupils a lively sense of copartnership. 
How? Why? (274). 

(20) Never stop until you have found the good thing in the 
bad child. 



The World and Its People* 

A Series of Eight Geographical Readers, 
Charmingly Illustrated, for Supplementary- 
Work in Schools, and for the Interest 
of the Family at Home. 

Under the Editorial supervision of LARKIN DUNTON, LL.D., 
Head Master of Boston Normal School. 



Book I. First Lessons - 36 cts. Book V. Modem Europe - 60 cts. 

Book II. Glimpses of the ^^^^ VI. Life in Asia - 60 cts. 

World - 3^ cts. 

Book III. Our Own Country 50 cts. Book VII. Views in Africa 72 cts. 

Book IV. Our American Book VIII. Australia and the 

Neighbors - 60 cts. Islands of the Sea 68 cts. 

This series of fascinating books makes geography a study of absorbing interest. 
The maps, the boundaries, the spots called cities, begin to be alive as the pupil 
reads these graphic and ample descriptions of the countries of the world, their 
individual characteristics, their people's ways. Behind the map he sees a real 
world, tangible and bright-hued as his own surroundings. 

This circling picture of the v/orld comes, not as a task, but as a wise direction 
of the home reading, in which all the family are often impelled to join. 

Of peculiar and timely interest just now is Book VIII., which vividly describes, 
among the " Islands of the Sea," those new possessions over which our gallant 
sailors and soldiers have raised the Stars and Stripes. 

Send for Specimen Pages. 



Songs of the Nation* 

A Superb Collection of the Most Representative American 
Songs, for Schools, Societies, and Homes. 

By Col. Charles W. Johnson, T^o^irarj Chief Clerk of U. S. Senate. 

In these days, when the sentiment of country is calling for a new and fuller 
expression, this collection is most timely. 

It embodies the patriotic songs most in demand (25 of them), together with 
many more songs for Anniversaries and occasions, American folk-songs, a group 
of old religious favorites, the best College songs, etc. 

Sent by mail on receipt of price — 60 cents. 



Silver, Burdett and Company, Publishers, 
New York. Boston. Chicago. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS